Constantin Oancea, "Psalm 2 im Alten Testament und im frühen Judentum," 159-180
New Testament citations of Psalm 2 show that it was regarded as a messianic text in the Early Church. Although the Christian messianic understanding is usually connected to V 7, of the 12 references to Psalm 2 in the NT, only 3 are to this verse. This also makes the messianic character of Ps 2 a matter of different possible understandings for ancient and modern readers. The article explores the image of ‘the anointed’ in the primary context of the psalm and the aspects that influenced the reception of the text in Early Judaism. Analysis of motifs reveals that Psalm 2 makes use of royal ideology, prophetical traditions and themes of Wisdom in a way that indicates its genesis in Post-Exilic times. It was addressed to a Jewish community marked by rather negative experiences with other nations. The psalm was messianic from its beginning, but it regarded ‘the anointed’ as a king of the near future, when the Kingdom of YHWH will have become obvious for all nations. ‘Messiah’ is a matter of hope for the author of Psalm 2 and his community. The reception of the psalm in Early Judaism oscillated between sapiential interpretations, where emphasis is on serving the Lord and observing His commandments, and messianic interpretations, where the scenario of the Psalm is situated in the time of the eschatological confrontation.
Emanuel Contac, "The Reception of Zechariah 9:9 in the New Testament and in the Early Church," 181-205
The present paper analyzes the reception of a classical messianic prophecy ‒ Zechariah 9:9 ‒ in the Gospels of Matthew and John, respectively, highlighting the particular way in which the two evangelists quote and embed this text into their own theological fabric. The second part of the paper presents the early Rezeptionsgeschichte of Zechariah 9:9, surveying a wide variety of Christian authors who span five centuries (Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Cyril of Jerusalem, John Chrysostom, Jerome, Augustine and Caesarius of Arles). Our analysis shows that while some early commentators read the text allegorically, others see in it an important witness about the earthly life of Jesus or, more generally, the history of salvation. A few important commentators use the text pollemically as they wrestle theologically with various categories of opponents (Jews, Ebionites, Valentinians, Marcionites, pagans).
Korinna Zamfir, "From Humble Servant to Incarnate Logos Christology: Ethics, Apologetics and Polemics in the Early Readings of Isa 52-53," 206-225
Early Christian authors use Isaiah 52–53 for various purposes. Beside the Christological-soteriological interpretation of Jesus’ ministry and/or suffering, the quotes serve ethical purposes. The apologetical-polemical function becomes dominant from the mid-second century onward, as part of the debates with real or fictitious Jewish and pagan opponents.
Mitchell Alexander Esswein, "Is he Going to Kill Himself?: The Willing Self-Sacrifice of Jesus and the Akedah in the Fourth Gospel," 231-261
This study examines the passages in which the Akedah is tacitly referenced by the Fourth Evangelist to explain who Christ was for his community. It identifies a plethora of thematic and linguistic expressions in John that are parallel to the developing tradition of Isaac's willing sacrifice. This analysis begins with a linguistic examination of Jewish texts that speak of an "only"/"beloved" child in the context of sacrifice (Gen 22; Judg 11:29–40; and 2 Kgs 2:26–27), and explores the translation of these terms into Greek (יחיד to μονογενής/ἀγαπητός). Secondly, key thematic developments in the evolution of the Akedah are explored in relation to John's Gospel. This study concludes that John consciously employed an Isaac-typology, and its characteristic vocabulary, to elaborate upon the meaning of Jesus' sacrifice.
Reinhard Neudecker, "Marriage and Divorce: the Pharisees and Jesus in the Ligh of Early Rabbinic Literature," 262-286
The teaching of Jesus on marriage and divorce is particularly clear in the gospel of Matthew. Matthew deals with this theme in connection with the Decalogue commandment “You shall not commit adultery” (Exod 20:14). The logion of Jesus on divorce appears as a doublet in Matt 5:32 within Matthew’s so-called antitheses and in Matt 19:9 within its original context, which presents also Jesus’ view of marriage. In both places Jesus’ teaching challenges that of the Scribes and Pharisees. Matthew does not spell out the positions of the Scribes and Pharisees in greater detail. He limits himself to abbreviations and mere hints, which makes it necessary to look for fuller background information.The standpoint of the Scribes and Pharisees that Matthew, particularly in his antitheses, chooses to indicate moves to a great extent on the level of legal exegesis and practical (juridical) justice. This standpoint is challenged by Jesus’ teaching which, however, is on a moral level and which presents a spirituality for the perfect: “You must be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect” (Matt 5:48). On the level of justice that can be put into practice in a society of ordinary people who do break the commandments, Jesus may well have approved a good number of the Scribal and Pharisaic rules and regulations as being made “for the hardness of the human heart” (cf. Matt 19:8). In fact, in Matt 23:2-3 Jesus calls upon his followers to do and observe everything the Scribes and Pharisees tell them, because they “sit on Moses’ seat”. Here it is agreed that in principle they are the heirs of Moses and that their teaching, in spite of Jesus’ criticism, merits attention.
Dan Batovici, "A Few Notes on the Use of the Scripture in Galatians," 287-301
This paper revisits the question of the function of the Old Testament references in the Epistle to the Galatians. The inquiry is largely focused on direct quotations which are each analyzed with regard to their specific function within the argument in which they are employed. A number of characteristics emerge from the analysis which will then be assessed against the solutions proposed in previous scholarship on the topic.